Structures: An advert can take form in many ways. This could be in the form of a realist narrative where the story of the advert is based around real situations. Alternatively you can make an advert in an anti-realist way. This would be for example having something that shouldnt talk talking such as a talking meerkat in the compare the market adverts or a talking phone from the direct line adverts. Something animated can also be seen as an anti realist narrative. There is also a documentary style which can include talking head interviews such as most toothpaste adverts we see nowadays that interview the dentist who recommends their recommended brand. Something we are seeing more in adverts nowadays is that they are part of a series of adverts in a campaign. The CompareTheMarket adverts, BT adverts and GoCompare all have a series of adverts. More advertising campaigns are using a recognisable ‘mascot. Compare the market have Sergei and Orlov, Gocompare have the ‘jolly chap with a moustache’ with annoying singing, have Brian the robot. Adverts come in different styles, they can be humourous, surreal, dramatic or pariodic and they can also come in the form of computer graphics and special effects. Techniques: Adverts arent allowed to have hidden messages (subliminal) in the form of an image flashed on the screen for a millisecond or an audio track playing in the background either in reverse if forwards speech. In many countries this is banned however, you are allowed to have overt messages as they are openly displayed to the viewer. Advertisers use messages to advertise their product. Overt messages are usually implied by the advertiserm for example ‘you should use lynx because it will make you smell nice and attract female attention’. Emotions also play a part in advertisement, for example we might buy a product that tends to:

  • Solve a problem
  • Stop something that we fear
  • Entices guilt or compassion or Shock
  • Looks to help out social position

Finish dishwasher tablets adverts show the problem that many people have and then show their solution to the problem. The following advert plays on the viewers fears – in this particular advert the message is that kids mimic the actions of their parents and that if you smoke your children are likely to do the same, which is something that parents rarely wish to happen. Charities such as WaterAid make their adverts to entice guilt in the viewer by showing shocking and unsettling footage of young children drinking from dirty stagnent water in order to get the viewer to donate money towards the charity. This often works but it can also anger towards the advertiser. Adverts also use celebrity endorsement to sell their product. Other adverts highlight the unique selling point of a prodcut McDonals use brand identity for some of their adverts. They do this by displaying the company colours (red and yellow), they always try and highlight the fact McDonalds is a family friendly place to go for food. Other companies use repetition to ‘drill’ the message into the audiences minds although seen as annoying it is effective. We can all remember the GoCompare adverts. Fosters adverts have used stereotypes in their adverts because they dont always have time to portray a character so they use the over simplified stereotype in order to do so. Regulations: OFCOM – The Office of Communications OFCOM are a government corporation that regulates ‘TV and radio sectors, fixed line telecoms, mobiles, postal services, plus the airwaves over which wireless devices operate.’ They represent the interests of the citizens of the public and consumers by promoting competition as well as protect the public from offensive or harmful materials. OFCOM have the power to take action when problems occur in the benefit of consumers. They can also withhold materials and enforce laws as well as penalties backed by courts. The maximum fee can be £5000 and/or imprisonment for up to 51 weeks. They can also decrease or remove channel licenses.

ASA – Advertsing Standards Authority

ASA is the biggest independent watchdog who makes sure that all adverts are legal, decent, honest as well as truthful. ASA are respond to complaints about adverts and take necessary actions against the advert if it has broken rules.

Advertisers are expected to create an advert responsibly and that doesnt mislead, harm or offend. This is across all media platforms: Tv, Radio, Newspaper, Magazines, Website, Posters, Mailings, Mobiles, Texts and e-mails.

Audience Classification:

Through market research audiences can be split up into various demographic groups and in those groups would be sub-sections. These sub-sections are as follows:

  • Socio-economic status
    • a Socio-economic status is the class of which a person falls in depending on career and actual income
    • in the 21st century we use group catagories  A,B,C1,C2,D and E. A being upper class, and E being lower class.
  • Interests and Lifestyles
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Gender
  • Age Group
  • Location

Media producers have to be careful when making adverts for certain group because they cannot alienate or harm groups using stereotyping.

Audience Information:

Audience analysis examines the responses an audience has to a given pop-culture artifact. This shows how the audience actually interprate, understand and use popular culture texts.

You can carry out audience research using three methods:

  • Broad surveys and Opinion Polls
    these aim to collect a representative sample of a large number of consumers.
  • Representative Focus Groups                                                                                                                                          Small groups that are arranged to discuss and react to popular culture
  • Ethnographic participation observation
    A researcher lives with and observes the TV viewing habits of a household over a particular time period.

Sources of Information:

A rate card is a documented pricelist which offers descriptions for different placements for advertisement which are available from a media outlet. Rate cards contain all the information someone would need in order to purchase the space for advertisement.

Godzilla 1954

Budget: The production cost for Godzilla (1954) was $900,000 and it made $2.25 million at the box office.


They had to use models, puppets and rubber suits to make this film. An actor was put in a rubber suit to play Godzilla because they couldn’t film using the stop motion method because it would have taken them an estimated 7 years to finish the film.

Distribution and exhibition –

The film was a success commercially and critically. The Americans saw this and re-shot some scenes from the Original to make the film appealing to the American and English audience.

Trends and Synergies

Due to the popularity of the film, a series of sequels were made. At least one a year was made and sometimes two new Godzilla films coming out a year. The Godzilla image changed as series progressed as they started to portray Godzilla as the ‘protector of the human race’ by fighting off other monsters. The lastest Godzilla film made in 2014 was focusing Godzilla being the protector since the 1998 remake was done so poorly.


Social and political 

Godzilla was a metaphor for the atomic bomb. Since the end of World War II concluded a 9 years earlier, use of the atomic bomb on the likes of Nagasaki and Hiroshima that killed over 129,000 people was understandably still in the minds of the Japanese. This was one of the ways they could express their feelings about the issue due to the fact their was a censorship code that meant the topic couldn’t be talked about directly . Godzilla was made by human then turns out that it worked against them. Like the atomic bomb.

Godzilla 2014 


The budget for the 2014 Godzilla was $160 million and was funded by Legendary Pictures and Warner Bro’s. This was good news for the director Gareth Edwards who was used to making good looking films from a lower budget. Gareth Edwards made his own monster film called ‘Monsters’ from within his own home using CGI. The difference in budget between ‘Monsters’ and ‘Godzilla is a huge gap their he was capable of making something special and was a great opportunity for his career to advance.

Technologies of production 

The film was shot digitally and a large chunk of the budget went on CGI.

Distribution and exhibiton 

The film had a ‘wide release pattern’ essentially meaning that Godzilla was played on as many screens as possible in the cinema’s in order to gain as much profit as possible after its official release date. Nowadays we have the likes of 3D and IMAX screenings made available thanks to our digital technology. This is a big step up from in 1954 where they had to show the movie from a 35mm film reel(s).

Trends, Synergies

A trend that we are seeing nowadays is the serious, dark gripping stories such as The Dark Knight or Lawless. They filmed Godzilla in the same way. They included the events of 9/11 which is used a lot especially in action films like ‘A Good Day to Die Hard’. Since the events of 9/11 more destruction of the city films are being made.


The 2014 Godzilla didnt have huge names playing the main roles in this film.The biggest name for me was Bryan Cranston. The other roles were played by less known actors. This was due to the fact the film demanded so much of the budget to be used on CGI that they saved money on actors by hiring smaller names to play the roles. These smaller names still are talents all round and obviously had experience. If they had chosen to hire a big name to play the main roles then they risked the actor dropping out for the sequel because they were hired for another film. If that were to happen then the film could flop as it may have lost some credibility that the actor brought to the production.

Social and political 

In the Godzilla Sequels Godzilla the ‘hero’. Godzilla is the protector of the city against antagonist monsters. Many apocalyptic films use 9/11 imagery. An example of this would be Cloverfield where New York is destroyed by an unknown monster.

Audience Classification – Media producers gather data from market research to determine demographic groups, which includes sub-genres and sections of which you can identify the correct audience for what they are selling. These sub-genres are:

  • Socio-economic status
  • Interests and lifestyle
  • Sexual orientation
  • Genre
  • Age Group
  • Location

These also have catergories within them. It is important to not stereotype when trying to attract certain groups as it can make people feel alienated and it is offensive.

Socio-economic status – This is also known as “social class”. Social class isn’t the easiest to define nowadays due to the increase in women working, more educational opportunity, larger numbers of jobs in banking, service sector and retail industries. In the 20th centuary it was easier to define people as lower, middle or upper class. Lower class was taken from the working class as they would usually be doing the menial jobs. Lower class people would tend to stay in the lower class, middle in the middle and upper in the upper class as they would follow the same path that their parents did, moving into the same sort of jobs.

Nowadays families are ranked from labels, ‘A’ being most upmarket to ‘B’, ‘C’,’C1′,’C2′,’D’ and ‘E’. Rolex advertise for demographic groups A and B. Since their product costs more than other watch brands they need to advertise where catagories A and B would find it. Therefore they advertise at events like Tennis matches and F1 which are sports that are considered more upmarket.

Standard Occupational Classification is a recent method in determining which type are of people are within which social group but since it requires more in depth research media producers tend not to use it.

Interests and Lifestyle – The lifestyle is a particularly important factor to consider when targeting audiences. It is fairly similar to a occupation however wealthier people have more desposable income to spend on fancy holidays, expensive hobbies and clothing. Sticking to sport as an example, people that fall in the ‘C2′,’D’,’E’ would most likely go to see the football team they follow live, on tv, phones, laptops and tablets. This enables marketing strategies that advertise products that relate to the specific group. You tend to find beer adverts like Heineken during the UEFA champions league matches because its stereotypically related to mens lifestyles.

Stanley Kubrick was an American film director who was born on the 26th July in 1928. He was also a screenwriter, producer, cinematographer and editer. His films were groundbreaking in terms of cinematography. In 1968 Kubrick released 2001: A Space Odyssey which Steven Spielberg called ‘his generations big bang’ because it had innovative visual effects and scientific realism. Kubrick also made The Shining which was one of the first feature films that used the steadicam to give stable fuild tracking shots. One of the most famous examples of this would be the shot following the little boy on the tricycle. Stanley Kubricks Traits: Stretching Genres In 2001, Dr. Strangelove, The Shining, Clockwork Orange, and Paths of Glory, Kubrick strethces the genres.

  • 2001 was a sci-fi film which was a serious film from 1965-1968. There werent many fictional sci-fi films when this was made and the majority of Sci-fi films being made were considered to be B-movie material. George Lucas said that it was nearly impossible to make a sci-fi film without using aspects from 2001: A Space Odyssey.
  • Dr Strangelove was a comedy satire thriller about nuclear war which was a serious concern considering america were testing bombs at the time.
  • Clockwork Orange was a dystopian look at the future with elements of comedy, drama, sci-fi and satire.
  • The Shining is a horror movie with aspects of satire. Most horrors are shot in dark spaces where The Shining was very well lit.
  • Paths of Glory is an anti war film which highlights the physical and mental effects that war has on soldiers. It portrays the officers as being incompetent and shows the struggle in hierachy.

Moving Camera In Kubricks films he uses lots of shots where the camera moves and follows the action.

  • In ‘Paths of Glory’ he uses tracking shots when moving through the trenches.
  • In ‘The Shining’ the shots around Overlook Hotel were shot using a steadicam.
  • In ‘Clockwork Orange’ he uses tracking shots to follow Alex.
  • In ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ the stargate sequence was filmed using slit-scan photography. The Slit-scan technique is where you process a moveable slide which has a slit cut into it is put between the camera and the subject being photographed.

Symmetry There are many symmetrical shots used by Kubrick in all his films, for example: 2001 Space Odyssey Screen shot 2014-11-27 at 12.20.33 Full Metal Jacket Screen shot 2014-11-27 at 12.21.18 The Shining Screen shot 2014-11-27 at 12.20.20 Barry Lyndon (1975) Screen shot 2014-11-27 at 12.23.03

Unconventional Narrative & Dialogue In 2001, Full Metal jacket and Eyes Wide Shut there is no clear ending to the film. In Full Metal Jacket just after the vietnamese soldier was shot you see the soldiers walking through burning wreckage and singing the mickey mouse song. In 2001 the final shot was of a huge space baby leaving the audience not really knowing what was going on. As well as the unclear endings, Kubrick rarely uses the shot reverse shot and uses wider angles. Conventional dialogue is shot with shot reverse shots, and close-ups. The unclear endings enables the audience to imagine what would happen next, as it would leave them questioning the ending. It also makes the film stick in your head longer since you are always thinking about it which could lead to you talking about it to your friends passing on word of mouth about the film which could ultimately bring more viewers.

Other Traits

  • Kubrick includes 17th and 18th century paintings in Paths of Glory, Lolita, 2001, Clockwork Orange and Barry Lyndon
  • In Kubricks films there are no happy families which is a common thing in most Holywood films.
  • The main characters are all male and they seem like they dont really have much awareness of their actions. Examples : Humbert Humbert in Lolita, General Jack D. Ripper in Dr. Strangelove, Alex from Clockwork Orange, Barry Lyndon from Barry Lyndon, Jack from The Shining as well as Bill from Eyes Wide Shut.
  • Most of the time Kubrick sets out to get a score made for his films however he ends up using pre-recorded or non-score soundtracks by Ligeti and Penderecki.

Another Auteur – Quentin Tarantino Another Auteur that I would like to write about is Quentin Tarantino. Tarantino uses the theme of racism including the use of the ‘N-word’, his techniques in cinematography such as crash zooms, tracking shots and long takes in his films. However the technique that Quentin is well known for is the use of violence adding to narrative. Shot Types: Firstly I am going to talk about the use of ‘Crash Zooms’ – An example of a crash zoom would be the introduction of Calvin Candie in Django Unchained (2012). Its simple a fast zoom in towards a point of interest. Crash Zoom’s are used to bring a situation, character or part of the screen to the audience’s attention. He uses the crash zoom very well in his film ‘Kill Bill: Vol 2’ where The Bride is being trained by Master Pai Mei. In the first 4 seconds of this clip we see 2 crash zooms used to emphasise Master Pai Mei’s skill. Through out this clip crash zooms are used to show facial expressions, the fact Pai Mei is always there watching the bride and judging her. Tarantino used the crash zoom in Kill Bill a lot because of when the film was set – back in the late 60’s. Back then the crash zoom’s were a popular technique and this is a contributing factor to what makes Tarantino so different to other filmmakers.  Since he is a huge film fan and he tends to take techniques and influences from his favourite films and directors as well as using soundtracks from other films in his own films. Tarantino uses long takes/tracking shots in his films, below are a few examples: 0-44s 4-59s 33-1:49s + 2:32-3:37 ‘Trunk shot/Reverse Trunk Shot ( Reservoir Dogs) – Corpse Shot/Reverse Corpse Shot (Kill Bill: Vol 2)’ This type of shot is to add intimidation, a good example would be in Reservoir Dogs where  the boot of a car is opened to reveal 3 men staring down into the boot. This gives the perspective from the boot of the car. The audience are looking up at three men, and the three men are looking down upon the audience. However my in my opinion the best example of this shot would be from Kill Bill: Vol 2 where Tarantino give the Brides perspective of being buried alive which helps add fear and intimidation as it helps the audience have a certain empathy for the bride. Violence: Pulp Fiction,  Kill Bill: Vol 2, and Reservoir Dogs are probably the best examples of where Tarantino uses violence to add narrative. Starting off with Reservoir Dogs, specifically the torture scene where we see a lot of violence. This is to show the fact that Mr. Blonde is mentally unstable, its not just there for the sake of it. Mr. Blonde ignores the pleas from the officer as he covers the officer in petrol. Moving on to an example of violence in another movie specifically the scene in Pulp Fiction where Samuel Jackson and John Travolta go to retrieve a briefcase from an apartment that has three people in it ends with all three of those people being killed. The first two deaths being on purpose and the last as an accident on the way back from retrieving the briefcase. Kill Bill is a film based around violence. Volume 2 is after the bride survives being shot down on the day of her wedding to which she is put into a coma. Once woken form a coma she hunts down the people that did this to her, so violence is definitely a key theme in this one. Appearances: Tarantino also appears in some of his films. According to IMDB he played Mr Brown in Reservoir Dogs, a mining employee in Django Unchained, he played two separate roles in Inglorious Bastards, Warren in Death Proof as well as Jimmie Dimick in Pulp Fiction. However there are other roles in which he has played. Bibliography Symmetry screen shots from Giulio Angioni, Fare dire sentire: l’identico e il diverso nelle culture (2011), p. 37 and Un film del cuore, in Il dito alzato (2012), pp. 121–136

Auteur theory is the theory that filmmakers have a recognisable style that reflects their personal creative vision which is repeated in their films.

Auteur theory originated in the 1954 due to Francois Truffaut when directors started using the camera ‘like a writer uses a pen’. Francois became a successful film director, writer as well as actor in the French New Wave (Nouvelle Vague).
Truffaut believed that an auteurs film would always be better than than the best movies of a non auteur because it would ‘lack originality and rely on literaray and classics or scripts’ which rendered the director a scene setter.

in 1962 Andrew Sarris, a US writer, wrote about Auteur Theory in an essay called ‘Notes on the Auteur Theory’ and stated that ‘a director must accomplish technical competence in his technique, personal style in terms of how the movie looks and feels and interior meaning.

Themes, Lighting, Camerawork, Staging, Editing and Mise-en-scene are aspects that are considered to make an Auteur.

Mise-en-scene includes: Set Design, lighting, space, composition, costume, make-up and hair style, acting, filmstock and aspect ratio’s.

Passive spectatorship – In this theory it is considered that all viewers have the same reaction to a film. An example would be ‘The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas’ (2012) – is a film where people will empathise the people in the concentration camp and Bruno who is the son of a comandent at the concentration camp. The film is from the point of view of a young boy who most audiences would find sympathetic. This reaction will be vastly similar to people across the world who know about concerntraion camps in WW2.

Active spectatorship – In this theory it is considered that viewers’ own histories and experiences affect their interpretation. For example in the film ‘Spiderman’, when Spiderman’s uncle gets shot the emotions between me and someone who’s uncle was shot would be vastly different. They would feel upset and would be affected worse by the tragedy in the film as they can relate to the character’s emotions because they too have experienced the same emotions. When we watch anything we involve our own personal experience into what we are viewing.

A viewer’s interpretation is effected by their media literacy. E.G. A seasoned horror movie viewer will have a different experience of ‘Evil Dead’ to someone who has never seen a gory movie before.

Psychological – Sigmund Freud came up with the theories of – Ego , super ego, id (inate desire), which are three parts of the human personality, and he believed in oedipus complex, electra complex, and wish fullfilment. Freuds theories have affected filmmakers especially in the early 20th centruary. One impact freud had was the inclusion of dream sequences. For example in the film Donnie Darko.