The spalding suite is a production where ‘six dynamic performers mix live beatboxing, hip-hop, music, moves and poetry, taking us from the fleeting high of the score and the robust camaraderie of the team, to the poignant lows of a body too worn to play the game.’

‘Co-commissioned by Southbank Centre and Contact. Funded by Arts Council England and a Wellcome Trust Arts Award. Produced by Fuel.’

“Full of treats for the eye, the ear and the mind… Slam dunk.” **** – British Theatre Guide

My favourite genre would have to be horror. Horror films are aimed to make the audience have a sense of fear, panic, and dread. Many films these days are about peoples biggest fears such as Paranormal Activity and Insidious which was to portray the vicious and cruel nature of disturbed entities. Many people fear entities and this film would particularly scare them. Horror films can overlap into different genres creating a sub genre. You can find Comedy Horrors, Zombie Horrors and Supernatural Horrors etc. I specifically like zombie horrors, because I like the whole ‘survive as long as you can in an apocolyptic situation’ type of film. My favourites would be 28 Weeks Later (2007 – Directed by Juan Carlos Fresnadillo), World War Z (2013 – Directed by Mark Forster), 28 Days Later (2002 – Directed by Danny Boyle) and I am Legend (2007 – Directed by Francis Lawrence). My favourite by a long shot is 28 Days Later. I particularly like this film because of where it is set. Since I have been to London fairly often I know the place and its recognisable in the film. This adds to the relatability of the film. I loved the fact they included small things that we’ve all done such as hanging your hand out the window of a car to feel the breeze, again this has added to the relatability of the film. This makes me relate to the story more. The fact the virus is a rage virus instead of a virus that ‘turns you into zombies’ makes it seem so much more real. Something like that is a possibility however not as drastic as they make it in the films. The fact the virus was released because of some animal rights activists breaking into a research lab and released some chimps infected with the rage virus also makes it so much more real. I like the jumpy nature of these sort of films, even though you can kind of expect what’s going to happen I still find it jumpy. The recurring theme of possibility and relatability in this film makes this my favourite zombie horror film.

‘I am Legend’ has very similar qualities that you find in ’28 Days Later’. One scene in particular that I liked was the scene where Robert Neville (played by Will Smith) is out hunting deer with his dog Sam.

What i find so great about this scene is again the relatability, and the use of sound. I really liked the fact Robert Neville was talking to his dog during this scene, lets face we do it and certainly if we were left alone with only your dog you’d do the same thing (relatability). The familiar sounds used add to the quality of this scene, I personally find it quite eerie that all you can hear are birds tweeting and crickets bleating which are sounds that we find quite relaxing and tranquil (other than the car engine in the beginning of the scene – but yet again that’s a relatable sound). This scene still has its jumpy nature because out of nowhere the deer Robert was hunting gets pounced on by a lioness. A bit before this happens the soundtrack goes quieter (adding tension) and then suddenly we are ‘hit in the face’ by a loud sound (adding to the jumpiness of the scene). I also really liked the fact the film included the morals of a person in this scene. The fact he chose not to kill off the lioness which was catching its prey to feed its cub which sets his research into finding a cure back. Even in the worst situations there is still moral – i think that was a nice touch which we don’t necessarily find frequently in many zombie horror films.

Another scene they executed well was the first encounter with the infected after his dog runs off into a dark spacious eerie building.

In this scene they still keep the qualities of companionship with his dog, which again adds to relatability. What I particularly liked about this scene is the lighting and use of sound. You can constantly hear the unsettling breathing of Robert during this scene, you can clearly hear the echo’s of his footsteps and the rustling of the newspapers and clanking when he accidently steps on a wooden block. This makes the scene so much tenser. I really like when he see’s the group of infected huddling together because just before it you hear a sharp unsettling sound followed by another fairly unsettling sound of the infected. What I liked about the lighting in this scene is that you couldn’t make out many details of the building and you only see the infected briefly before it goes pitch black again. For me this makes the scene a whole load jumpier, which is one of the qualities i really like about zombie horrors.

In the vast majority of jumpy scenes in horror movies there will usually be a quiet eerie soundtrack followed by an unsettling sound just before or as something gets in your face or surprises you.

Moving off of zombie horrors and onto a paranormal horror – The Grudge 3 (2009 – Directed by Toby Wilkins, particularly the following scene:

I’ve chosen this scene in particular because it is a bright well light scene which you don’t find many of in horror films. Usually to add tension and eeriness the scene would be dark with only specific parts of the screen light which is what i was talking about with the first encounter with the infected in I Am Legend. However, mainly because the soundtrack to this scene I found was very good.

In this scene we yet again have a quiet soundtrack with an unsettling sound, this time a low drone noise followed by another sharp high pitched noise just before/as you see a glimpse of the grudge. As the grudge starts to pursue the character in this scene there are unsettling, jarring and unpleasant orchestral sounds. Another technique directors use in horror films is the use of reflections which we have an example of in this scene. As Dr.Sullivan is running away you can see the grudge approaching in the reflection on the glass. (0.55s in the above clip). As she continues to run away we start to here symbols clapping together which builds tension in the scene as well as the drones pitch gradually raising as we see the grudge bend backwards and performing some somewhat unnatural body movements and skipping forward. I also liked the fact the screen flashes when the grudge does this, I just think its a nice touch.

Contractual : This is where you sign a contract before you start the job to agree payment/how you will be paid, time period, give specific details of what they want – the specifics, what they might provide you.

Advantages: Its an agreement to you that you are going to get paid and you can plan ahead as well as protects you. It’s good for the company as it is very detailed and gives specifics that aren’t to be negotitated.

Disadvantages: If you dont stick to the contract their will be problems, usualy ending up with you not recieving pay (reductions in pay + bad word of mouth in the future). Even if you have something unexpected happen you still have to stick to the contract and have to produce since you have signed the contract.

Negotiated: Try and get more money, or a fair amount. Negotiate the deadline – is it realistic can you meet the deadline. How much is it actually going to cost to do this job, does the pay make it worthwhile. Negotiating these things will be easier when you have done this sort of thing a few times as you know how long it will take to do things. Might be a good idea to ask around to see how long it takes other people.

Formal and Informal Briefs: Formal brief is set fairly set in stone this is what they want, you’ve got to go and do that. Informal briefs ask for you to work together with them to perhaps give back creative ideas.

Commission: When someone approaches you and pays/asks you to complete something for them – you might then go into a contract. They might have unrealistic expectations for you. A downside of being asked directly is that you might find yourself doing the same stuff over and over and they can also compare to your last work. its easier to get a bigger budget when on commission because they like you and the work you do and they are backing you to complete the job.

Tender: You come up with how much it will cost to complete an idea, you sort of have to guess what the budget is. (its a bit like bidding) You bid would have to be better, more favourable than others. You are trying to give the best pitch in order to get the job.

Competition: You’re posting up im going to make a film with these techniques in order to make something. The best idea etc will get the job. The amount of budget isnt fixed and they would usually have a good idea of what they want. Quite short turn around jobs.

Reading a Brief: What do you need to consider what do you look out for. Be really clear in what they are after. Make sure you both have the same idea in what you are doing. You have to think it through, only agree to do stuff that you realistically can do.

Negotiating the Brief: Its about talking to the clint finding where the slack is. Most clients will be happy to give you all the work and expect you to turn it around. You have to find out how much they want. upload previews and get them to give you feedback before handing the final edit. You want the client to come out of the job being pleased with your performance.

consultation with client, degree of discretion in interpreting brief, contraints (legal ethical regulatory) They want you to represent them not yourself so things like gender equality + racial equality ( i/e use 1 male actor 1 female, Have a diversity in ethnicity etc), negotiate amendments to proposed final product (agree in advanced what you are going to do if they dont like the final product – i.e i will do this by this time and give you a chance to give notes on improvements  then i will produce the final product for this time and if you dont like it after that you will have to pay me this much extra for this work, amendments to budget – are you going to charge me extra, are there any hidden costs. If you stick to the budget and deliever on time you will most likely get good word of mouth from the client. Propose extra things to the client that you think will be good instead of springing the idea on them later on in the project, amendments to condition fees – opportunities, identify opportunities for self-development and new skills and propose extra skills that you can do.

Multi camera shoots is a way of capturing more footage in less time. This is a good technique and is essential for live events and studio productions Multi camera shoots are more efficient because it reduces the time you’d spend editing the footage. It also means that you wouldnt have to re-light for different camera setups as well as not having to move and set up the camera for alternative camera angles. Multi camera shoots also make it a considerable amount easier to reduce the amount of continuity errors that you may encounter during reshoots. Mock the week uses these techniques. Mock the week uses well known comedians, and they pay out for the space in which they record in so they want to keep the time in which they are filming to a minimum as they have to work to a budget and they want to keep the costs as low as possible. Mock the week also has to be filmed before a deadline therefore using multiple cameras helps minimise time spent in the studio. Multi camera techniques also help with the flow of the show as they do not need to stop to adjust lighting and shot types as well as making the editors job easier. However they can also go back and reshoot parts that have been messed up or something that they didn’t want aired.

In this clip at 0:27 you can see a crane shot capturing a smooth sweeping shot of the audience leading into a medium longshot of the host of the panel show. They then switch to a medium shot of the host at 0:33. At 1:01 you can see a shot of the panel and the host, at 1:08 there is a shot of one of the teams (there will be another camera that would capture the other team – usually placed symmetrically to the opposing camera). At 1:58 there is a medium close up shot of a comedian. At 2:00 there is a medium close up shot of the host. The cameras are linked to a vision mixer and it is the person operating the vision mixer that decides which shot to use. The camera operators and the person doing the vision mixing will be able to talk to each other through microphones so they can arrange what shot to get and there will be a light on the camera telling you when you are live.

Live Events: (Football, concerts, stage productions and public events) Live events such as football matches use multiple cameras because they cannot stop the action just to readjust the camera for a better shot. Having multiple cameras means there are various different shots (long shots, close ups, medium close ups, medium shots, medium long shots etc) that can be used to make the action more interesting for people watching on TV etc. 6_Stadium_Camera_Set_Up_32_Camera_Plan_0

Most live events would have a main camera gathering wide angle shots which contains the majority of the action. There would be cameras recording from the sides that would focus on certain individuals or actions. There would usually be a camera thats attached to a cable that runs along the centre that capture smooth swooping shots as well as camera operators positioned closer to the action capturing handheld footage. In football matches there are also usually two other cameras positioned next to the main camera that are ready to focus on the main action and individuals.

At 0:15 in this video you can see a shot that covers most of the action, at 0:16 there is a medium shot capturing a , at 0:26 we can see a shot of a camera man on the touchlines following the action with a medium long shot. 0:46 you can see a long shot from a higher angel capturing the majority of the action. 0:57 there is a shot capturing a clear shot of the goal. You can clearly see that there are multiple camera’s capturing a variety of different shots so that no action is missed. Camera operators want to capture as much as possible because they can sell the footage, so if there is violence in the crowd they want to make sure that they capture it as they can sell it to news stations and the likes etc. Again the camera operators and the person doing the vision mixing will be able to talk to each other through microphones so they can arrange what shot to get and there will be a light on the camera telling you when you are live.

‘Mrs Browns Boys’ is a TV show filmed infront of a live studio audience and it is also filmed using multi camera techniques.

In this clip at 0:40 you can see a camera capturing a medium shot of the action. at :48 you can see a handheld camera capturing the action and then the shot changes to a medium close up shot of the people speaking. There is a 4th camera that captures the other end of the shot reverse shot at 0:59. In this example the multiple cameras would be used to reduce the time in the studio so there would be less fee’s to pay on the likes of paying for actors and the space of which they work in. Its easier to edit as it gives nice shot dynamics.

Every media product (containing text, sound or image) is called a ‘text. In media studies when you consume a text its often called ‘reading’ it even though it could be a film that you’ve watched or a website that you’ve visited its still called ‘reading’ it.

Audience understanding

Meaning in media texts aren’t always interpreted the same way, some peoples interpretations differ based on opinion. Some filmmakers deliberately leave an open ending to a film to make its audience think about what would happen next, whereas some try their best to make everyone understand the ending in the exact same way. The more descriptions given the more the audience will interpret the text in the same way, give the audience less then they are given room to imagine what the text is meaning. However some producers try and force their own ‘preferred readings’. Preferred readings is the meaning that the producers intended the audience to make of the text. There aren’t just preferred readings, there are oppositional and negotiable readings too. Oppositional being the meaning the audience interpret is significantly different to what the producer meant. Negotiated readings is the idea that meanings are created from both the text and the audience once the two meet.

Participatory Responses

This response is when the audience take part and interact with the product. This could be through call in programmes, text, phone calls, emails, competitions or polls on the audiences opinion. There will be someone moderating such things by removing content that is libellous or malicious. Media producers understand that when a debate on a subject gets heated or someone shows their strong feelings for something that their product gets recognised more. Media producers may invite this type of behaviour in order for more recognition.

Cultural Competence

An audience will read a text and interpret it based on previous experiences and their knowledge gained through their life. For example we all know what pain feels like, so when we see it in an text we can all relate to it.  We cant all relate to everything though, i.e women cant understand man-flu. The collection of feelings we have when reading media products is called ‘cultural reserve’. Peoples cultural reserves will differ because not everyone lives through the same events and experience the same things.

Fan Culture

In fan culture media products can entice strong responses from their target audience because they have become fans of the subject. The subject could be a TV programme, presenter, film star, newspaper columnist, and you could also say a website. Some media producers knowingly entice strong reactions from their fan base because they are usually prepared to buy merchandise which would obviously increases profits. Merchandise is also good advertisement. For an example a Marvel T-shirt would usually have ‘MARVEL’ written on it or the logo displayed somewhere on the merchendise which encourages interest as well as making the brand more widely seen.

Audience Theory

Not everyone who sees and advert or a brand will actually go out and purchase the product just because of the advert or brand. However research has shown that young kids respond more to adverts than adults and teenagers. There is still no definitive answer to how people respond to media products, there are only theories and some of them contradict each other because they cant all be correct. Two key terms used are ‘Passive consumption’ and ‘Active consumption’. Passive consumption is a theory where the audience doesn’t really pay attention to the text making it passive and the audience all respond in the same way. Active consumption is the opposite. It states that an audience are made up of individuals who all react accordingly to their own opinions, experiences and personalities.

Hypodermic Needle Model 

The hypodermic needle model is an explanation of how audiences respond. It compares the way an audience responds to the way a doctor may inject a stimulant into a human muscle. The stimulant would make any (fully functional) muscle react the same way. The comparison is that the media text could ‘inject’ the information into the minds of the audience and it being likely that they would give the same reaction. This is passive consumption.

This is seen as an inaccurate explanation of how audiences respond to texts.

Say there was an advert of concerning a field of flowers in the summer there would be a range of reactions. Some people would think of their allergies, some people would think about having beers in the sun, some people may remember a somebody they lost last summer etc. Basically there are a proportion of negative responses as well as positive responses. This is evidence that not everybody react the same way to a text. Sales figures relating to an advert could possibly prove that the advert has had its intended impact and is a success but it is very unlikely that everyone who consumed the advert will actually go out an buy the product.

Uses and gratification theory

This is the most popular model, it considers people in an audience to be independent thinkers that interpret media products in different ways. These different ways are depending on a range of factors that are as follows:

  • Their experiences
  • Their values
  • Their understanding

This type of response is active consumption.

Task 1 – Video for Interactive Media: What You Need to Know Write a blog article on how designers use digital video technology to enhance a user’s interactive experience on different delivery platforms. The article must cover: §  Applications such as Short films, Promos, Trailers, viral marketing, Virtual reality tours, games, e-learning; platforms such as the web, disc, kiosk, and mobile devices Technology as relevant to each application – compression, file formats, streaming, data transfer rate, HD, SD, aspect ratio, different media players, Digital rights management systems.


  • Technical Issues related to different platforms.
    • Tablet/IPad – Phone – PC/MAC – TV – Cinema
  • Technical issues related to file format and size
  • Why use video online
  • mention kinds of user generated content

Technology is changing and its changing fast. We can now communicate with people from all over the globe in an instant, you can now watch things in HD, 3D and we now have 4k resolution TV’s. Video has also come a long way the past years. The way we can watch things has change. We can stream and download in anything ranging from 180 – 1080(p/i) and on many different platforms. The likes of Amazon Prime, Netflix, Now TV enable us to do this. Technology has change education too. We are now able to use the internet, computers, tablet, interactive smart boards, ipads and tablets to aid our eduction and not just for entertainment. Internet connection have changed too, we now have wireless as well super fast fibre optic which vastly enhances internet connection speeds.


Short films:

There are websites that allow us to share and watch shortfilms such as Youtube and Vimeo (vimeo being used more proffesionally than Youtube). These sights have share, comment and like buttons and are connected to other websites of similar types. You will often find when you click share you have link to share with the likes of Facebook, soundcloud, vimeo, youtube, blogging site, company websites, and the list goes on. The likes of Sky now have services where you can purchase films and TV box set on the TV so that you can download them through your Sky box Sky and they will also send you a hard copy of what you have purchased. There is just so much available at your finger tips. You can get things like this on the move as you can stream and download to thones, tablets, ipads and laptops since we now have 3G as well as 4G internet connections on these devices (they are currently working on 5G).

Promotional Materials:

You can find promotional materials all over the internet. Mainly on the likes of Facebook, Twitter, Soundcloud, Mixcloud, Youtube and Vimeo. The internet is so bombarded by adverts now and networking has become so easy that many companies are now becoming more internet based.

On Youtube you will usually find an advert before being able to view your video, this is because the Youtuber has agreed with Youtube to put an advert on their material in order to gain money through views and advertisement. You can purchase advertising space on youtube at various levels. If you pay a higher sum you can get non skippable adverts where as many you have to wait 5 seconds in order to skip.

Trailers for films:

This is a kind of advertisement for a film. These are used to entice the viewer into actively going out and paying to watch a film either by buying a copy of it digitally or on DVD or going out to watch it in Cinema’s of which we now have the likes of IMAX and IMAX 3D (IMAX is “a technique of widescreen cinematography which produces an image approximately ten times larger than that from standard 35 mm film.”) Film trailers can be viewed on the likes of Youtube and fan websites. Films are now making their own websites such as With the ability to comment like and share we can now distribute these trailers and participate in discussions with other fans and critics about films. Websites now have the ability to monitor what sort of things you like in order to suggest things that would interest you so if you were to go onto youtube and watch an action trailer you will get suggestions to other things relevant to what you have been watching.

User-generated content, Viral Marketing:

A term we commonly see is ‘Viral’. Many videos which are created and uploaded have the chance to go viral with ease due to the sharing facilities we now have. Companies have made videos and sneakily added their product in them in order for easy advertisement. A good example of this is Cadbury’s. Here’s a link to an article and the video.

Virtual Reality Tours:

There is a website called which enables people to ‘visit’ places all other the world from within your house. This can give you a feel of the destination of your choice without actually going anywhere.


Gaming has changed a lot now too. Artificial Intelligence has been vastly improves which improves gameplay. In recent games the way you can play has changed. You have the option to change the storylines based on the decisions you make in the game. (different decisions different outcome). You can record and edit clips from games with a capture card for consoles and software for PC’s and Mac’s. You can share them on Youtube and get comments, feedback, tips, discussions from doing so with the aid the internet.


E-Learn is a way to learn about various subjects. It allows anyone wanting to learn to learn at their own pace. is a website that kids can use in order to learn through fun educational games and assignments. Using educational games is a way to help kids learn whilst they have fun.

Mobile Devices and Web Browsers:

Smart Phone or android phones are portable phones. However you can now access internet, emails, games, book, apps, maps. You can get just about everything on your phone thanks to the internet. Phones are now customisable.

Search engines such as Google, Safari, Bing and Firefox have web browsers which enables us to have access to the internet.

CCB Sustainable Events Exhibition:

This was in in college event that was filmed by the class and a short 5 minute edit was delivered to the client.

The video consisted of:

  • Filming of an event – (b-roll) – action shots.
  • Expertse / Representatives talking to the camera (interview – talking head)
  • Titles & Graphics (Graphs/Stats) – informative
  • Give website(s) / Contact Info

Life of an Apprentice – by a company called SeeThat

This was a video made for City College Brighton and Hove to explain to interesterd parties about what the apprenticships scheme is about for potential apprentices. This video consisted of:

  • Green Screen for interviewees
  • Titles/Motion Graphic/Kinetic Typography to say who they are and underlining key points
  • Shot composition obeyed Rules of Thirds
  • High key lighting
  • Persistent sound level – dry sound (all the dialogue was easy to hear).

Journey Never Stops:

This was an American Express campaign which was to sell the idea of american express as a brand saying that its for everyone, the film consists of:

  • Use of celebrities
  • uplifting piano orchestrated music doesnt interupt the voice over
  • lots of lense flair, depth of field, crisp footage that looks ‘a bit hollywood’ – super wide angle shots, soft colouring
  • Lots of story
  • Titles

A marketing strategy that is used by company’s and businesses use to promote themselves would be a promotional video. This is to show potential consumers what they could do for them. There has to be a strong clear message in promotional videos and has to be aimed at the appropriate target audience. Precision is important in a promotional video because it will keep the attention of the target audience.

Production Practices

You will liase with the client and develope idea’s. After this you will usually propose your final idea to which when approved you will need to storyboard the idea and create a script and shooting script. Once this is done you should create a schedule and research and complete necesarry health and safety documents.

Codes and Conventions

Interviews & Customer Opinions
You can interview customers to find out their opinions. A customers opinion is usually a good thing as its practically a review of the service. You should show positive feedback and responses as it is very persuasive since the audience are potential customers.
Voice over
A lot of promotional video’s use voice overs to get the audiences attention. This usually replaces music but some videos have quiet music in the background however you should be careful not to drown out the voice with the music. Voice overs are also useful because it enables blind people to understand the promotional video wihtout making a seperate video for them so that can same time and resources.
Shots & Lighting
Having a good shot variation is better because they havent already seen it so every shot is different, but repeating shots is still fairly common. Having a still camera is very boring to watch so varying the shot type will make it more interesting to watch, this could simply be including some fluid moving shots from various different angles inbetween still camera shots. The motion of the camera can depend on what type of promotional or corprate video you are making, but most are slow and smooth which makes it easier to edit.
Its important to have a bright well lit video. Having a bright environments are more appealing to the eye than dark dull environments.
Titles, Transitions and effects
Titles are useful to display the names of the interviewee’s. Its best to maintain the same font throughout the video as it looks neater and more proffessional. Using visual effects and fluent transitions also helps make the video look the part and adds to the flow of the video.


Promotional video’s tend not to be longer than 6 minutes maximum. Its important to not bore your audience so keep them engaged and interested throughout the video.


Having some environment sounds can be useful for making the video more interesting, because without them it can be very dull and boring to watch. You should be careful to not drown out voice overs with these sounds.


Research into the target audience is a very important thing as it enables you to make a video in a style that will draw the viewers attention and can get the message of the corprate or promotional video across better. Research can also help you to not plagarise or breech copyright.

Equipment you’ll need


Obviously you’ll need a camera, fairly obvious you’ll need one because if you dont have one you wont have any video at all.

Since the standards have risen a lot recently camera’s are expected to shoot in HD. Even low budget productions must look slick. You should have a vairety of lenses at your disposal.

Tripod(s), Dollies and Cranes (possibly)

Tripods stop the shot looking shakey. Shakey shots are harder to edit. Dollies enable smooth moving shots and cranes help you get shots from higher up and again give smooth fluid shots. You might not need a crane but depending on the style/type of video you are making you might need one. These types of equipment make the video you are making look professional which is very important in promotional and corprate video’s


If you’re filming outside you are better off with a boom mic due to the attachments you have such as the ‘deadcat’ which stops the sound being ruined by wind etc.

If you’re filming inside using a radio mic can be useful for recording voices. Its a lot easier to use these than a boom mic (also saves a crew member which you’d need to pay for their times and operation).

A working computer with editing software

A working computer is required to upload the footage and to edit the footage with. You’ll need some kind of editing software such as Adobe. The final edit should be HD and on file however people may ask for it on CD.

Ethical issues and considerations

Most promotional and corprate video’s use actors or interviewee’s from different ethinic backgrounds to show the fact they dont discriminate and for company image. Using actors of both genders is also popular in corprate and promotional video’s.

Inclusion of violence, sexual content and abuse you need to be very careful with. Including such things can get the video banned and may cause offence to the viewer. Ofcom ban any video’s that have abuse in it as some viewers may have experienced abuse first hand and may be distress or unsettled by it. In terms of violence, younger viewers copy what they see on TV so be careful what you include when you are promoting. Sexual content is inapropriate for young viewers therefor Ofcom tend to ban promotional/corprate/advert video’s with inapropriate sexual content.

Legal Issues


You need to have contracts for everyone who will be in the promotional/corprate video. This is a written document that proves that they have given permission to be in it. You cant simply film people without their consent


You cant make another company or person look bad. If you do this you will most likely have legal actions taken against you.


You need permission to use certain music and trademarks. You can credit someone’s work, buy the copyright or pay a fee to use copyrighted music. You cant use brands without permission either. You need to contact people that can give permission to include brand in your advert.

Structures: An advert can take form in many ways. This could be in the form of a realist narrative where the story of the advert is based around real situations. Alternatively you can make an advert in an anti-realist way. This would be for example having something that shouldnt talk talking such as a talking meerkat in the compare the market adverts or a talking phone from the direct line adverts. Something animated can also be seen as an anti realist narrative. There is also a documentary style which can include talking head interviews such as most toothpaste adverts we see nowadays that interview the dentist who recommends their recommended brand. Something we are seeing more in adverts nowadays is that they are part of a series of adverts in a campaign. The CompareTheMarket adverts, BT adverts and GoCompare all have a series of adverts. More advertising campaigns are using a recognisable ‘mascot. Compare the market have Sergei and Orlov, Gocompare have the ‘jolly chap with a moustache’ with annoying singing, have Brian the robot. Adverts come in different styles, they can be humourous, surreal, dramatic or pariodic and they can also come in the form of computer graphics and special effects. Techniques: Adverts arent allowed to have hidden messages (subliminal) in the form of an image flashed on the screen for a millisecond or an audio track playing in the background either in reverse if forwards speech. In many countries this is banned however, you are allowed to have overt messages as they are openly displayed to the viewer. Advertisers use messages to advertise their product. Overt messages are usually implied by the advertiserm for example ‘you should use lynx because it will make you smell nice and attract female attention’. Emotions also play a part in advertisement, for example we might buy a product that tends to:

  • Solve a problem
  • Stop something that we fear
  • Entices guilt or compassion or Shock
  • Looks to help out social position

Finish dishwasher tablets adverts show the problem that many people have and then show their solution to the problem. The following advert plays on the viewers fears – in this particular advert the message is that kids mimic the actions of their parents and that if you smoke your children are likely to do the same, which is something that parents rarely wish to happen. Charities such as WaterAid make their adverts to entice guilt in the viewer by showing shocking and unsettling footage of young children drinking from dirty stagnent water in order to get the viewer to donate money towards the charity. This often works but it can also anger towards the advertiser. Adverts also use celebrity endorsement to sell their product. Other adverts highlight the unique selling point of a prodcut McDonals use brand identity for some of their adverts. They do this by displaying the company colours (red and yellow), they always try and highlight the fact McDonalds is a family friendly place to go for food. Other companies use repetition to ‘drill’ the message into the audiences minds although seen as annoying it is effective. We can all remember the GoCompare adverts. Fosters adverts have used stereotypes in their adverts because they dont always have time to portray a character so they use the over simplified stereotype in order to do so. Regulations: OFCOM – The Office of Communications OFCOM are a government corporation that regulates ‘TV and radio sectors, fixed line telecoms, mobiles, postal services, plus the airwaves over which wireless devices operate.’ They represent the interests of the citizens of the public and consumers by promoting competition as well as protect the public from offensive or harmful materials. OFCOM have the power to take action when problems occur in the benefit of consumers. They can also withhold materials and enforce laws as well as penalties backed by courts. The maximum fee can be £5000 and/or imprisonment for up to 51 weeks. They can also decrease or remove channel licenses.

ASA – Advertsing Standards Authority

ASA is the biggest independent watchdog who makes sure that all adverts are legal, decent, honest as well as truthful. ASA are respond to complaints about adverts and take necessary actions against the advert if it has broken rules.

Advertisers are expected to create an advert responsibly and that doesnt mislead, harm or offend. This is across all media platforms: Tv, Radio, Newspaper, Magazines, Website, Posters, Mailings, Mobiles, Texts and e-mails.

Audience Classification:

Through market research audiences can be split up into various demographic groups and in those groups would be sub-sections. These sub-sections are as follows:

  • Socio-economic status
    • a Socio-economic status is the class of which a person falls in depending on career and actual income
    • in the 21st century we use group catagories  A,B,C1,C2,D and E. A being upper class, and E being lower class.
  • Interests and Lifestyles
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Gender
  • Age Group
  • Location

Media producers have to be careful when making adverts for certain group because they cannot alienate or harm groups using stereotyping.

Audience Information:

Audience analysis examines the responses an audience has to a given pop-culture artifact. This shows how the audience actually interprate, understand and use popular culture texts.

You can carry out audience research using three methods:

  • Broad surveys and Opinion Polls
    these aim to collect a representative sample of a large number of consumers.
  • Representative Focus Groups                                                                                                                                          Small groups that are arranged to discuss and react to popular culture
  • Ethnographic participation observation
    A researcher lives with and observes the TV viewing habits of a household over a particular time period.

Sources of Information:

A rate card is a documented pricelist which offers descriptions for different placements for advertisement which are available from a media outlet. Rate cards contain all the information someone would need in order to purchase the space for advertisement.

Godzilla 1954

Budget: The production cost for Godzilla (1954) was $900,000 and it made $2.25 million at the box office.


They had to use models, puppets and rubber suits to make this film. An actor was put in a rubber suit to play Godzilla because they couldn’t film using the stop motion method because it would have taken them an estimated 7 years to finish the film.

Distribution and exhibition –

The film was a success commercially and critically. The Americans saw this and re-shot some scenes from the Original to make the film appealing to the American and English audience.

Trends and Synergies

Due to the popularity of the film, a series of sequels were made. At least one a year was made and sometimes two new Godzilla films coming out a year. The Godzilla image changed as series progressed as they started to portray Godzilla as the ‘protector of the human race’ by fighting off other monsters. The lastest Godzilla film made in 2014 was focusing Godzilla being the protector since the 1998 remake was done so poorly.


Social and political 

Godzilla was a metaphor for the atomic bomb. Since the end of World War II concluded a 9 years earlier, use of the atomic bomb on the likes of Nagasaki and Hiroshima that killed over 129,000 people was understandably still in the minds of the Japanese. This was one of the ways they could express their feelings about the issue due to the fact their was a censorship code that meant the topic couldn’t be talked about directly . Godzilla was made by human then turns out that it worked against them. Like the atomic bomb.

Godzilla 2014 


The budget for the 2014 Godzilla was $160 million and was funded by Legendary Pictures and Warner Bro’s. This was good news for the director Gareth Edwards who was used to making good looking films from a lower budget. Gareth Edwards made his own monster film called ‘Monsters’ from within his own home using CGI. The difference in budget between ‘Monsters’ and ‘Godzilla is a huge gap their he was capable of making something special and was a great opportunity for his career to advance.

Technologies of production 

The film was shot digitally and a large chunk of the budget went on CGI.

Distribution and exhibiton 

The film had a ‘wide release pattern’ essentially meaning that Godzilla was played on as many screens as possible in the cinema’s in order to gain as much profit as possible after its official release date. Nowadays we have the likes of 3D and IMAX screenings made available thanks to our digital technology. This is a big step up from in 1954 where they had to show the movie from a 35mm film reel(s).

Trends, Synergies

A trend that we are seeing nowadays is the serious, dark gripping stories such as The Dark Knight or Lawless. They filmed Godzilla in the same way. They included the events of 9/11 which is used a lot especially in action films like ‘A Good Day to Die Hard’. Since the events of 9/11 more destruction of the city films are being made.


The 2014 Godzilla didnt have huge names playing the main roles in this film.The biggest name for me was Bryan Cranston. The other roles were played by less known actors. This was due to the fact the film demanded so much of the budget to be used on CGI that they saved money on actors by hiring smaller names to play the roles. These smaller names still are talents all round and obviously had experience. If they had chosen to hire a big name to play the main roles then they risked the actor dropping out for the sequel because they were hired for another film. If that were to happen then the film could flop as it may have lost some credibility that the actor brought to the production.

Social and political 

In the Godzilla Sequels Godzilla the ‘hero’. Godzilla is the protector of the city against antagonist monsters. Many apocalyptic films use 9/11 imagery. An example of this would be Cloverfield where New York is destroyed by an unknown monster.

Audience Classification – Media producers gather data from market research to determine demographic groups, which includes sub-genres and sections of which you can identify the correct audience for what they are selling. These sub-genres are:

  • Socio-economic status
  • Interests and lifestyle
  • Sexual orientation
  • Genre
  • Age Group
  • Location

These also have catergories within them. It is important to not stereotype when trying to attract certain groups as it can make people feel alienated and it is offensive.

Socio-economic status – This is also known as “social class”. Social class isn’t the easiest to define nowadays due to the increase in women working, more educational opportunity, larger numbers of jobs in banking, service sector and retail industries. In the 20th centuary it was easier to define people as lower, middle or upper class. Lower class was taken from the working class as they would usually be doing the menial jobs. Lower class people would tend to stay in the lower class, middle in the middle and upper in the upper class as they would follow the same path that their parents did, moving into the same sort of jobs.

Nowadays families are ranked from labels, ‘A’ being most upmarket to ‘B’, ‘C’,’C1′,’C2′,’D’ and ‘E’. Rolex advertise for demographic groups A and B. Since their product costs more than other watch brands they need to advertise where catagories A and B would find it. Therefore they advertise at events like Tennis matches and F1 which are sports that are considered more upmarket.

Standard Occupational Classification is a recent method in determining which type are of people are within which social group but since it requires more in depth research media producers tend not to use it.

Interests and Lifestyle – The lifestyle is a particularly important factor to consider when targeting audiences. It is fairly similar to a occupation however wealthier people have more desposable income to spend on fancy holidays, expensive hobbies and clothing. Sticking to sport as an example, people that fall in the ‘C2′,’D’,’E’ would most likely go to see the football team they follow live, on tv, phones, laptops and tablets. This enables marketing strategies that advertise products that relate to the specific group. You tend to find beer adverts like Heineken during the UEFA champions league matches because its stereotypically related to mens lifestyles.